الكمبيوتر القاتل !!

قال علماء نيوزيلانديون إن السفر بالطائرات لمسافات طويلة قد لا يكون السبب الوحيد للإصابة بالتخثر الدموي الذي له عواقب خطيرة - فإن الجلوس أمام الكومبيوتر لفترت طويلة قد يعرض الشخص للإصابة بالمرض أيضا.
وأوردت المجلة الأوربية لأمراض جهاز التنفس حالة شاب من نيوزيلاندة قارب على الموت بعد أن أصيب بالتخثر الدموي في الأوعية الدموية أثر لجلوسه فترة طويلة أمام الكومبيوتر.
وكان الشخص المصاب - يعتبر أول ضحية مسجلة للمرض الذي أطلق عليه تخثر الدم الإلكتروني - قد قضى 18 ساعة يوميا أمام الكومبيوتر، وأصيب بالتخثر في أوعية ساقيه أولا ثم انتقل إلى رئتيه.
ويحذر الباحث ريتشارد بيزلي في المعهد الأبحاث الطبية في نيوزيلاندة من أن الاستخدام الواسع للكومبيوتر في مختلف نواحي الحياة قد يعرض عددا كبيرا من الأشخاص لمخاطر الإصابة بالتخثر الدموي.
وقال الدكتور بيزلي "قد تكون الحالة مماثلة للحالات التي تصيب الأشخاص الذين يسافرون فترات طويلة في مقاعد ضيقة في الطائرات.
ويقول الباحثون إن أي شخص يستخدم الكومبيوتر لفترت طويلة يجب أن يأخذ استراحة لتحريك ساقيه وجسمه.
KILLER COMPUTER!!
Nioselandion scientists said that air travel for long distances may not be the sole cause of the injury of blood clotting, which has serious consequences - it is sitting in front of the computer for long-cooled may expose the person to the disease as well.
Reported the European Journal of respiratory diseases in the case of a young New Zealand boat to death after suffering a blood clotting in blood vessels of the impact of sitting in front of the computer for a long time.
The infected person - is the first recorded victim of the disease, which was launched by the clotting of blood-mail - has spent 18 hours a day in front of the computer, hit by clotting in the vessels of his legs and then moved to his lungs.
It warns researcher Richard Beasley of the Medical Research Institute in New Zealand that the widespread use of computers in various aspects of life may expose many people to the risk of blood clotting.
Dr Paisley said "the situation may be similar to situations that affect people who travel for long periods in the narrow seats in the aircraft.
The researchers say that any person using the computer for long-cooled must take a break to move the legs and body.

اعرف شخصيتك من اكلتك


أوضحت دراسة أمريكية أن طريقة الأكل تعتبر مؤشراً مهماً على طبيعة الشخصية، وأوضحت أن الشخص الذى يترك الطعام الألذ للنهاية، يحب التحكم ببيئته المحيطة، وهو من الشخصيات المسيطرة، وهو روتينى مجتهد فى عمله، يميز بين الخطأ والصواب،

أما الشخص الذى يمزج الأطعمة والنكهات، فتقول الدراسة إنه فضولى بطبعه ومبدع فى حياته، يحب التعلم وتجربة كل ما هو جديد، وهو شخص متواضع ومسل ويتمتع بروح الدعابة ولا يهتم بما يقوله الناس عنه.

الشخص الذى يبدأ بأكل ما يحبه، وفقاً للدراسة، إنسان طموح بطبعه ولديه عزيمة للإنجاز، يمل بسرعة من الروتين وبحاجة دائمة للتحدى، يعبر عن نفسه بصراحة، وغالباً ما يقوم بالحديث قبل أن يفكر فى معنى الكلام الذى يتفوه به.

أما الشخص الذى يتناول كل نوع على حدة، فهو حساس جداً ويفضل البساطة فى حياته، يراعى مشاعر المحيطين به، يميل للتمهل، فضلاً عن تمتعه بالإخلاص فى عمله وفى العلاقات الشخصية.

willpower قوة الارادة


Willpower
Willpower
is the ability to exert one's will over one's actions.

Willpower manifests as inner firmness, decisiveness, determination, resolution and persistence.

Willpower is the initial force needed for you to take action.

Picture the scene: It’s pissing down with rain outside, it’s
cold, you’re lying all cosy and comfortable watching TV in front of the
fire and the dog is crying to go for her daily walk. If you’ve
got a lot of willpower you would get up and take her for a walk, if you’re
lacking in willpower you’ll carry on watching TV and justify to yourself
the reasons for not taking her a walk.

Will power and self-discipline go hand in hand. You need the willpower
to start whatever it is you want to do and you need the self discipline to
carry on where the willpower left off and this will go round in circles. For
a specific task you might only need to engage your willpower once and self
discipline will carry you through to your goal. On the other hand you
might have to engage your will power a hundred times before your goal has been
reached. For example every morning I have a cold shower it takes willpower
to turn that dial all the way down to 0 for a freezing cold temperature. I
used to do it gradually but now I just yank it right down to 0 when I have
finished washing. My willpower is acquiescing a bit now and it is getting
easier to do it but it still takes willpower and then the self discipline to
stay under. Why do I do it? Because I can, I am proving to myself I control
my mind and I believe there are benefits to be had from taking a cold shower.

There are certain steps needed to kick your willpower into action

An outcome (what is it you want to do?)
A plan (how are you going to do it?)
Action (get off your arse and do it!)
Let self discipline take over and repeat steps 1 -3 if necessary


Okay you’ve managed to get out of the sofa, walk the dog in the pouring
rain what now/ nothing, you have achieved your goal, but (always a but) do
you want to go on to bigger and better things, of course you do. Start
exercising your willpower regularly to keep it active and healthy. Here
are a few exercises to keep your willpower active and fit:

Read for half an hour every day
Stand on a chair for 5 minutes a day (If anybody asks what you are doing
tell them it’s a new form of meditation, you never know you might
be able to give classes in it.)
Take the dog for a walk every single morning for 21 days
Stop drinking coffee for a week
Get up half an hour earlier than usual for 21 days
Take a cold shower every morning for 21 days
Don’t eat sweets of any kind for a week

I am sure there are lots of things you could think of to exercise your willpower;
the above list is just a few examples.

Self control refers to the ability to control human behavior through the exertion of will. Self-control is required in order to inhibit impulsivity, and has been a recurrent theme throughout history, culture, and philosophy, where it is considered a key to volition (psychology) and free will.

In contemporary psychology it is sometimes referred to as self-regulation, and exerting self-control through the executive functions in decision making is thought to deplete a resource in the ego
People demonstrate great differences in the level of self-control. It can be affected because of illness and past experiences and it can be improved through the course of life. Many religions have teachings about self control. In the Christian context, Paul describes self control in the epistle to the Galatians (5:22-23), as one of the fruits of the Spirit. In the epistle addressed to Titus (2:5-6) he instructs to 'Urge the younger men to be self controlled.' The Apostle Peter describes an increase in self control as fundamental to the salvation of a Christian (2 Peter 1:5-8).

"A man without self-control is as defenseless as a city with broken-down walls" (Proverbs 25:28).
Another view is that self-control represents the locus of two conflicting contingencies of reinforcement, which then make a controlling response reinforcing when it causes changes in the controlled response
In the 1960s, Walter Mischel tested four year old children for self control in "The Marshmallow Test": the children were each given a marshmallow and told that they can eat it anytime they want, but if they waited 15 minutes, they would receive another marshmallow. Follow up studies showed that the results correlated well with these children's success levels in later life
In the experimental analysis of behavior, research on self-control exists with rats, humans and pigeons. This work is based on the Assumption of generality.


Rat self-control
An example of the kind of important work done in rat self-control research might be Green & Estle's work


Pigeon self-control
Pigeon self-control research is typically done in a delay-reduction paradigm innovated in the early 1970s. In this model of research two responses are made available simultaneously. Each response leads to a different outcome. One response typically leads to a smaller-reinforcement with a small or no delay from the selection of that response to the onset of the consequence. The other response is typically a larger-reinforcement which has some element of delay. In pigeons a common level of delay is as little as 6 seconds to qualify as "large". A typical small-reinforcer, small delay response might be a red key that produces 2 seconds of food access with no delay. A typical larger-reinforcer response might produce 6 seconds of food access, but only after 6 seconds of delay from that selection. To ensure that the delayed response represents an overall superior choice a delay of several seconds usually follows the smaller-reinforcement choice.


Pigeon research replicates Mischel paradigm
Largely replicating the work of Mischel using pigeons instead of children, Grosch and Neuringer (1981) were able to affirm generality in pigeon and human self-control research by showing that the behavior of human children was accurately represented by pigeons presented with the same conditions.


Human self-control
Human self-control research is typically modelled by using a token economy system in which human participants choose between tokens for one choice and usually more tokens for a delayed choice. Different results were being obtained for humans and non-humans, with the latter appearing to maximize their overall reinforcement despite delays, with the former being sensitive to changes in delay. The difference in research methodologies with humans - using tokens or conditioned reinforcers - and non-humans using sub-primary reinforcers suggested procedural artifacts as a possible suspect. One aspect of these procedural differences was the delay to the exchange period (Hyten et al 1994). Non-human subjects can, and would, access their reinforcement immediately. The human subjects had to wait for an "exchange period" in which they could exchange their tokens for money, usually at the end of the experiment. When this was done with pigeons they responded much like humans in which males have less control than females (Jackson & Hackenberg 1996).

Most of the research in the field of self control assumes that self control is in general better than impulsiveness. Some developmental psychologists argue that this is normal, and people age from infants, who have no ability to think of the future, and hence no self control or delayed gratification, to adults. As a result almost all research done on this topic is from this standpoint and very rarely is impulsiveness the more adaptive response in experimental design.

More recently some in the field of developmental psychology have begun to think of self control in a more complicated way that takes into account that sometimes impulsiveness is the more adaptive response. In their view, a normal individual should have the capacity to be either impulsive or controlled depending on which is the most adaptive. However, this is a recent shift in paradigm and there is little research conducted along these lines.


The Function of Culture
According to Logue, it is possible to examine the differences between individuals development of self-control by examining it as a function of culture. “By definition, cultures vary in terms of the experiences provided the people who are a part of these cultures. It is possible, therefore, that during development, people in different cultures acquire different degrees or types of self-control” .


Western Society
These differing degrees of self-control can be seen when comparing Western and Eastern cultures. In the United States, there appear to be strong tendencies for self-control and impulsivity. Western societies typically describe self control as, “goal-oriented productivity, assertiveness and instrumental doing”. Logue further states that, “self-control and resistance to temptation has long been part of Americans’ Judeo-Christian heritage. However, in recent decades, there has been concern that this early emphasis on self control may be dissipating”. This dissipation has been attributed to the baby boom or, “me” generation of the 70’s & 80’s and the decreasing rate of savings by current members of this age. This decline in self-control has additionally been noted by Kelly Brownells’ research stating that in modern society, “the degree to which someone is judged as possessing self-control is significantly affected by the degree to which the person has a fit, thin body”(Brownell, 1991.


Eastern Society
With regard to Eastern culture, societies have described self-control as “yielding, letting go, acceptance, and nonattachment” . This difference between the descriptions of self-control from those in Western society are not due to differences in definition, but rather the difference in what is considered a large outcome worth exhibiting self-control for. Emphasis must be made on the importance placed on self-control by the two societies. In Japanese culture, “individual gratification is valued much less than is advancement of the fortunes of the group. This requires individuals to set aside their personal interests in order to work for the long-term goals of society” . The samurai code, or ‘The Code of the Warriors’ also known as bushido, is a clear example of this. This can also be seen in the extreme self-control exhibited by high-school students in Japan preparing for college entrance examinations. Logue states that, “many Japanese organizations put more emphasis on the college examination score rather than on performance during college” .


Implications
Just as self-control (in terms of money and savings mainly due to easier credit in recent times) in Western society seems to be decreasing (particularly in America), recent findings relating to a decrease in the rate of savings in Japan suggests that a similar trend may be surfacing. Looking at the rate of savings can provide insight into the long-term planning strategies of the cultures. With growing technology and globalization, previous differences between the two cultures may be disappearing

Research by Roy Baumeister and others shows that the ability to self-control oneself relies on a power source that diminishes after exertion.

Subjects that were given a task that involves self-control were later less able for self-control even in entirely different areas. This result was replicated in over a hundred experiments.

Self control was also shown to improve upon exercise. Exercise in these experiments varied. Taking care on posture, doing regular exercise, and other forms of self-control improved over time the self-control ability in seemingly unrelated areas.
Self control and the quality of life
Reviews concluded that self control is correlated with various positive life outcomes, such as happiness, adjustment and various positive psychological factors.


Impulse control
Self Control as defined here is also known as impulse control or self regulation. Some psychologists prefer the term impulse control because it may be more precise. The term Self regulation is used to refer to the many processes individuals use to manage drives and emotions. Therefore, self regulation also embodies the concept of will power. Self Regulation is an extremely important executive function of the brain. Deficits in self control/regulation are found in a large number of psychological disorders including ADHD, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, addiction, eating disorders and impulse control disorders

أعلِ همتك...قوِّ إرادتك .... اشحذ عزيمتك... لا تتوانَ ولا تتكاسل... فإن عمرك القصير الثمين لا يحتمل كل هذا الخمول الذي يضيع حياتك سدى و قوة الارادة تمكنك من السيطرة على حياتك و تحقيق احلامك و السعادة ما شاء الله لك منها

قوة الارادة والاصرار والتحدي والدأب

قصيدة مترجمة لروديا كيلينج

,, إذا ,,


اذا استطعت ان تحتفظ برأسك عندما يفقد كل من حواليك رؤوسهم وينحون عليك باللائمة

اذا وثقت بنفسك عندما يفقد كل انسان ثقته فيك وتترك مع ذلك مجالا للشك

اذا استطعت ان تنتظر دون ان تمل الانتظار او ان يعاملك الاخرون بالكذب من دون ان تلجأ اليه او تكون موضع كراهية ولكنك لاتدع مجالا للكره للتسرب الى نفسك ولاتبدو افضل مما ينبغي ولا تتكلم بحكمة اكثر مما يجب


اذا استطعت ان تحلم ولاتدع للاحلام سيادة عليك

اذا استطعت ان تفكر ولاتجعل الافكار غايتك القصوى


اذا استطعت ان تجابه الفوز والفشل وتعامل هذين المخاتلين على حد سواء

اذا استطعت ان تكدس كل ما تملك من ارباح وتغامر بها دفعة واحدة

وتخسرها جميعا ثم تبدأ من جديد
من دون ان تنطق بكلمة واحدة عن خسارتك

اذا استطعت ان تخاطب الجماهير غير ان تتخلى عن فضائلك وان تسير ركاب الملوك من دون ان تفقد مزاياك المعتادة

اذا عجز الاعداء والاصدقاء والمحبون عن اثارة حفيظتك بايدائهم اياك

اذا كان الناس كلهم عندك سواسية من دون ان يكون لاي منهم اهمية خاصة

اذا استطعت ان تملآ الدقيقة الغاضبة التي لاتغفر لاحدٍ
بما يعادل ستين ثانية من السعي ركظاً فلك الارض وماعليها
وانت فوق كل ذلك ستكون رجلآ
يابني ....... !

جنين القمح


جنين القمح

يفيد للرشاقة ولمرضى السكر والكبد والقلب وعلاج هشاشة العظام والرياضيين.

جنين القمح وجبة مشبعة :
إن جنين القمح يحتوى على 18% ألياف لذا فإن شرب الماء بعد تناول جنين القمح يعطى إحساسا بالامتلاء ولذلك فان تناول ملعقة كبيرة قبل الأكل ب 10 دقائق مع كوب ماء يعطى أحساسا بالامتلاء .
جنين القمح يقلل امتصاص الجلوكوز والدهون:
بما أنه يحتوى على نسبة كبيرة من الألياف فإنه يعمل على امتصاص الجلوكوز ويحول الألياف إلى مركبات نافعة في القولون لتعالج الإمساك .
جنين القمح يساعد على احتراق الدهون:
حيث يحتوى على المنشطات الكبدية مثل الاينزتول ومجموعة فيتامين (ب) المركب التي تجعل الكبد في صورة طيبة - جنين القمح يحتوى على كل القيم الغذائية: فهو يحتوى على البروتينات والفيتامينات وقليل من الكربوهيدرات والأحماض الدهنية . فهو يساعد على التخلص من تراكم الدهون في الجسم لاحتوائه على حمض اللينوليك .
جنين القمح يخفض الكولسترول :
يحتوى على حمض اللينوليك الذي له تأثير جيد في تخفيض كولسترول الجسم .
جنين القمح يساعد على إنتاج مركبات مضادة للسرطان :
حيث أن تمثيل الجلكتومنان في الأمعاء بواسطة بكتريا الأمعاء والقولون يولد مركبات ذات تأثير للإصابة بالسرطان. ولذالك فأن جنين القمح يحتوى على نسبة كبيرة من هذه المقاومات الكيميائية ومضادات الأكسدة مثل البيتاكارتين والتوكوفرول وحمض الاسكوربيك.
جنين القمح وأمراض القلب :
أكدت أبحاث مستشفى نورثيك وجامعة بوسطن ان كمية ضئيلة من فيتامين (b) أو التوكوفيرول تحد من إصابات الذبحة الصدرية.
جنين القمح وأمراض الكبد:
نظرا لاحتواء جنين القمح على كل احتياجات الكبد في صورة طبيعية فأنة يحمى الكبد من التحولات السرطانية لذا يعتبر جنين القمح هام جدا لمرضى الكبد الفيروسي والالتهابات الكبدية وتدهن الكبد.
جنين القمح للرياضيين :
منشط فوق مستوى التحليلات لأنه طبيعي، تناول 6 ملاعق كبيرة لكي تحصل على القوة – الرشاقة – النشاط ولا يوجد أعراض جانبية .
جنين القمح وهشاشة العظام :
جنين القمح يعتبر إضافة ممتازة للوقاية وعلاج هشاشة العظام فمن المعروف أن الكالسيوم كي يمتص جيدا لابد من توافر وسط حمضي مع تواجد بروتين وكذلك فيتامين (ج) يعتبر عنصرا هاما للامتصاص فإذا توفرت وجبة من الزبادي مضافا إليها جنين القمح يوميا هذا يعنى أننا حصلنا على كالسيوم الزبادي وكذا كالسيوم جنين القمح وكذالك بروتين الزبادي وبروتين جنين القمح.
طريقة استعمال جنين القمح:
ملعقة كبيرة قبل الأكل 3 مرات يوميا مع نظام غذائي متوازن أو إضافة 2 ملعقة كبيرة على كوب الزبادي صباحا ومساء يعتبر غذاء كامل واقيا من مشاكل السكر والضغط والكولسترول ومشاكل الكبد.


أكدت دراسة علمية حديثة أعدها الدكتور عبيد عبد الرحيم الأستاذ بمعهد تكنولوجيا الأغذية في مصر أن تناول "جنين القمح"(لب القمح من الداخل) يزيد الطاقة الحيوية البدنية والذهنية ويحمي من أمراض القلب وتصلب الشرايين والشيخوخة.
وأوضحت الدراسة أن "الجنين" يحتوي على نسبة مرتفعة من البروتين تصل إلى 25% وسكريات وفيتامين "د" الذي يحمي الأنسجة من خطر الجزيئات الكيماوية الشاردة، كما يحمي الجسم من نواتج أكسدة الدهون التي تعتبر سببا رئيسياً للشيخوخة.
وأشارت الدراسة إلى أن"جنين حبة القمح" يمثل 2% من حجم الحبة وله لون يميل نحو الاصفرار ويتم شراؤه من المطاحن. ويضاف بمقدار ملعقة يومياً لطبق السلطة أو اللبن الزبادي او كمشروب أو طبق حلوى

Wheat germ is the embryo of the wheat kernel. Very high in B Vitamins, Vitamin E, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous and certain trace elements. The oil in the germ will go rancid quickly so keep frozen, refrigerated or vacuum pack
Wheat germWheat germ is a concentrated source of several essential nutrients including Vitamin E, folate (folic acid), phosphorus, thiamin, zinc and magnesium, as well as essential fatty acids and fatty alcohols. It is a good source of fiber Along with bran, germ is often a by-product of the milling that produces refined grain products. Wheat germ oil, rice bran oil (germ), maize germ, and others may be used to extract vegetable oil or directly as a food-making ingredient. The germ is retained as an integral part of whole grains. During the making of white bread, flour that has had the germ removed is used.

Wheat germ, due to its high concentration of complex carbohydrates and protein aids in gaining muscle and reducing instances of catabolism. These properties, in addition to the essential vitamins and fatty acids also present, make wheat germ a possible supplement for body builders and athletes.

It can be added to protein shakes, casseroles, muffins, pancakes, cereals and yogurt Also cookies and other baked goods.

It can go rancid if not properly stored in a fridge or freezer, and away from sunlight.

فوائد جمة للشكر


وقال روبرت إيه امونس الباحث في علم النفس في جامعة كاليفورنيا في دايفيس، إن الأشخاص الذين يشعرون بالامتنان، عادة ما يتمتعون بصحة أفضل من غيرهم، كما تقل لديهم الأعراض المرضية، ولديهم طاقة كبيرة، ولهم علاقات اجتماعية أوسع، إضافة إلى تمتعهم بروابط زوجية أقوى، وربما بمدخول مادي أكبر، مقارنة بأشخاص من غير الشاكرين! وأضاف الباحث، وفقاً لما نقلته صحيفة «ماكلاتشي تريبيون» الأميركية، إن الشاكرين يخلدون إلى النوم بسهولة، وينامون بعمق ولفترات أطول، ويستيقظون هانئي البال.
ونوه الباحث بأن زيادة مستويات الشعور بالشكر والامتنان تزيد من مستويات «إميونوغلوبولين إيه» immunoglobulin A

في الحنجرة والأنف، الأمر الذي يزيد من مقدرة الجسم على مقاومة العدوى الخبيثة. كما أشار إلى دور الامتنان في تقليل هرمون التوتر في الجسم.

والـ«إميونوغلوبولين إيه» هو صنف من الأجسام المضادة التي يفرزها الجسم لمكافحة الفيروسات والبكتيريا. ويقترح إيمونسن عدداً من التطبيقات التي تؤدي، إذا ما تم تطبيقها بقناعة تامة، إلى تعزيز مشاعر الامتنان والشكر لدى الإنسان، ومنها:

* تسجيل الملاحظات حول الأمور أو المغانم الجيدة التي حصلت خلال اليوم.

* المحافظة على ممارسة الشكر بانتظام.

* تركيز الانتباه على ما قدمه لك الآخرون من الأمور الجيدة.

* تعلم لغة الشكر بدلا من لغة الشكوى. والطلب من الأقرباء والأصدقاء مساعدتك في ذلك.

* توظيف المشاعر للتعرف على الحاضر وتقدير ما توصلت إليه من نعمة؛ تقدير ابتسامة الطفل، قدح الشاي الذي تتناوله في الصباح، روعة الغروب.

* تنفيذ أفعال حميدة مليئة بالامتنان.. ابتسم، اعطف على الناس، ساعد الغرباء

Highlights from the Research Project on Gratitude and Thankfulness
Dimensions and Perspectives of Gratitude

Co-Investigators: Robert A. Emmons, University of California, Davis
Michael E. McCullough, University of Miami
Gratitude is the “forgotten factor” in happiness research. We are engaged in a long-term research project designed to create and disseminate a large body of novel scientific data on the nature of gratitude, its causes, and its potential consequences for human health and well-being. Scientists are latecomers to the concept of gratitude. Religions and philosophies have long embraced gratitude as an indispensable manifestation of virtue, and an integral component of health, wholeness, and well-being. Through conducting highly focused, cutting-edge studies on the nature of gratitude, its causes, and its consequences, we hope to shed important scientific light on this important concept. This document is intended to provide a brief, introductory overview of the major findings to date of the research project. For further information, please contact Robert Emmons. This project is supported by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.



We are engaged in two main lines of inquiry at the present time: (1) developing methods to cultivate gratitude in daily life and assess gratitude’s effect on well-being, and (2) developing a measure to reliably assess individual differences in dispositional gratefulness.



Gratitude Interventions and Psychological and Physical Well-Being


In an experimental comparison, those who kept gratitude journals on a weekly basis exercised more regularly, reported fewer physical symptoms, felt better about their lives as a whole, and were more optimistic about the upcoming week compared to those who recorded hassles or neutral life events (Emmons & McCullough, 2003).


A related benefit was observed in the realm of personal goal attainment: Participants who kept gratitude lists were more likely to have made progress toward important personal goals (academic, interpersonal and health-based) over a two-month period compared to subjects in the other experimental conditions.


A daily gratitude intervention (self-guided exercises) with young adults resulted in higher reported levels of the positive states of alertness, enthusiasm, determination, attentiveness and energy compared to a focus on hassles or a downward social comparison (ways in which participants thought they were better off than others). There was no difference in levels of unpleasant emotions reported in the three groups.


Participants in the daily gratitude condition were more likely to report having helped someone with a personal problem or having offered emotional support to another, relative to the hassles or social comparison condition.


In a sample of adults with neuromuscular disease, a 21-day gratitude intervention resulted in greater amounts of high energy positive moods, a greater sense of feeling connected to others, more optimistic ratings of one’s life, and better sleep duration and sleep quality, relative to a control group.


Children who practice grateful thinking have more positive attitudes toward school and their families (Froh, Sefick, & Emmons, 2008).



Measuring the Grateful Disposition


Most people report being grateful (an average rating of nearly 6 on a 7 point scale).


Well-Being: Grateful people report higher levels of positive emotions, life satisfaction, vitality, optimism and lower levels of depression and stress. The disposition toward gratitude appears to enhance pleasant feeling states more than it diminishes unpleasant emotions. Grateful people do not deny or ignore the negative aspects of life.


Prosociality: People with a strong disposition toward gratitude have the capacity to be empathic and to take the perspective of others. They are rated as more generous and more helpful by people in their social networks (McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002).


Spirituality: Those who regularly attend religious services and engage in religious activities such as prayer reading religious material score are more likely to be grateful. Grateful people are more likely to acknowledge a belief in the interconnectedness of all life and a commitment to and responsibility to others (McCullough et. al., 2002). Gratitude does not require religious faith, but faith enhances the ability to be grateful.


Materialism: Grateful individuals place less importance on material goods; they are less likely to judge their own and others success in terms of possessions accumulated; they are less envious of others; and are more likely to share their possessions with others relative to less grateful persons.
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Selected Bibliography
Bono, G., Emmons, R.A., & McCullough, M.E. (2004). Gratitude in practice and the practice of gratitude.

In P. A. Linley and S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice. New York: Wiley.

Emmons, R.A., & McCullough, M.E. (Eds.). (2004). The psychology of gratitude. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Emmons, R.A. (2004). Gratitude. In M.E.P. Seligman & C. Peterson (Eds.), Character

strengths and virtues (pp. 553-568). New York: Oxford University Press.

Emmons, R.A. (2007). Thanks! How the New Science of Gratitude Can Make You Happier. New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

Emmons, R.A., & McCullough, M.E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: Experimental studies of

gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 377-389

Emmons, R.A. (2003). Acts of gratitude in organizations. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R.

E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 81-93). San Francisco: Berrett-

Koehler Publishers.

Emmons, R.A. & Shelton, C.S. (2001). Gratitude and the science of positive psychology. In

C.R. Snyder and S.J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 459-471). New York: Oxford University Press.

Emmons, R.A., & Hill, J. (2001). Words of gratitude for body, mind, and soul. Radnor, PA: Templeton

Foundation Press.

Froh, J., Sefick, W.J., & Emmons, R.A. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology.46, 213- 233.

McCullough, M.E. (2002). Savoring life, past and present: Explaining what hope and gratitude share

in common. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 202-204.

McCullough, M.E., Emmons, R.A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual

and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127.

McCullough, M.E., Kirkpatrick, S., Emmons, R.A., & Larson, D. (2001). Is gratitude a moral

affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249-266.

القمح والأرز الكاملان يفيدان الشعر


يحتوي القمح والأرز الكاملان على كثير من الفيتامينات والمعادن التي يحتاجها الجسم حتى لا يصاب بالكساح وضعف البصر وفقر الدم وتساقط الشعر وغيرها من الأمراض
كما أنهما غنيان بفيتامين هـ الذي يساعد على تكوين كرات الدم الحمراء والعضلات والأنسجة، كما يساعد على ارتخاء العضلات ويمنع تكوين مادة النيتروسامين المسببة للسرطان. والأرز والقمح الكاملان يحتويان على فيتامين ب 1، وهو يساعد الجهاز العصبي على القيام بوظائفه، ويزيد الشهية. كما أنه هام لنمو الأطفال. أما المعادن المتوافرة بهما فهي مهمة للجسم كي يستمر نشاط الخلايا، وهي عناصر مهمة لبعض الأنسجة والعضلات والغدد

موقع للإجابة على استفسارات مستخدمي فيستا


إثر قرار شركة مايكروسوفت بمد التاريخ المحدد لوقف شراء ويندوز إكس بي، وهي التي تمكن المستخدمين من الإبقاء على نظام التشغيل القديم حتى يتم طرح ويندوز 7، طرحت شركة مايكروسوفت موقع ويب جديد خصيصًا لمستخدمين فيستا، http://answers.microsoft.com/. والموقع، الذي ما زال نسخة تجريبية، هو منتدى دعم فني رسمي يقوم عليه موظفون بمايكروسوفت قادرون على مساعدة المستخدمين الذين يعانون من مشاكل في فيستا.
ولقد تم تصميم الموقع لتوفير حلول على هيئة سؤال وجواب. وبإمكان المستخدمين الاشتراك في أحد الأسئلة وسيتم إبلاغهم عبر متصفح الويب أو البريد الإلكتروني أو RSS عندما يتم نشر إجابة – إما بواسطة فريق دعم مايكروسوفت المحترف أو أعضاء المنتدى الآخرون. كما يمكنك تصفح محتويات المنتدى بصفتك أحد الضيوف لكنك ستحتاج إلى حساب على لايف حتى يتسنى لك طرح الأسئلة أو المشاركة في المنتدى. إلا أن الافتقار إلى دعم إكس بي أمرًا محبطًا حقًا، خصوصًا في ظل العدد الكبير الذي ما زال يعتمد على الموقع


(صحف)